Saturday, November 24, 2007

HDMI: Guide to HDTV Connection of the Future


As the HDTV market continues to heat up, consumers are in need of being educated on the latest technology. One of the terms that you, the consumer, will surely run into while selecting a HDTV set is: HDMI. For most this is an unfamiliar term and we will explain the details of HDMI in this article so you, the consumer, is armed with the proper knowledge to make intelligent purchasing decisions.

What is HDMI: HDMI is an acronym for High Definition Multi-Media Interface. The HDMI specification (now at 1.2) was created by some of the largest consumer electronics manufacturers in the world: Hitachi, Matsushita, Philips, Silicon Image, Sony, Thomson, and Toshiba. HDMI is the latest digital HDTV interconnection standard. The notable differences between HDMI and the earlier HDTV interconnects standards (component video, and DVI) are:

-HDMI is all digital unlike analog component video cables

-HDMI supports multi-channel audio in addition to digital video. (DVI only supports digital video)

- HDMI is more compact in size and carries both audio and video signals therefore eliminate cable clutter.

-HDMI incorporates content protection called HDCP ( high definition content protection)

What does a HDMI connector look like: HDMI looks similar to a USB cable. The compact size and high integration (carries both audio and video) makes the HDTV installation experience truly "plug and play."

Why should I use HDMI:

-HDMI is all digital, so picture quality is "perfect" from source to display

-HDMI is both a digital audio and video connection. This will minimize cabling in your system

-HDMI is rapidly becoming the de facto standard for HDTV connections.

How does HDMI transport the digital video: The video portion of HDMI is carried by 3 separate differential pairs. Each pair transports 1 of 3 uncompressed native digital R,G, B signals from source ( dvd player, set top box) to the sink ( HDTV display). A unique protocol, T.M.D.S.( transmission minimized differential signaling), is used to transport the digital data. Each pixel is represented by 24 bits ( 8 bits each for each of the primary colors). The T.M.D.S. protocol then "calculates" and stuffs 2 extra bits to the video data stream in order to create a digital stream with minimum transitions ( lower EMI, lower interference) and also minimize long strings of '1' and '0' which can cause detection errors.

A fourth differential pair, called the TMDS clock provides the pixel clock for timing the data stream. The maximum TMDS single link pixel clock rate is 165 MHz.

What is the data rate of a single link HDMI connection: The maximum pixel clock rate is 165MHz and each of the 3 TMDS video streams carries 10 bits. Therefore the aggregate data rate is 3 x 10 x 165MHz = 4.96Gbps.

How many pins are included in the HDMI connector: There are 19 individual pins in the HDMI connector. There are 3 pairs of TMDS signals which carry all the digital audio and video signals.

How is the digital Audio signal transported: The multi-channel audio is time multiplexed into the TMDS data streams. Audio is much lower data rate (192kbps) and the extra time is used to demux the audio signals.

What is HDCP: HDCP is an acronym for High-Bandwidth Digital Content Protection. HDCP is an encryption method developed by Intel in order to control unauthorized copying of digital media. The encryption is carried out in the HDMI transmitter found in the "source" ( dvd player, set top box) and decryption is carried out by the HDMI receiver ( the HDTV display). The secret keys for encryption are exchanged between the source and display over an I2C bus ( pins 15 and 16).

Is HDMI compatible with DVI: DVI is the predecessor to HDMI. HDMI and DVI are identical as far as video is concerned. Therefore, video backward compatibility exists. However, DVI will not support digital audio. For example, if you have an older DVI connection on your source and a HDMI connector on your display, a HDMI to DVI cable is all that is needed in order to view the video. A separate audio cable ( TOSLINK or SPDIF) will be needed to carry the digital audio.

What formats will HDMI support: HDMI is high speed digital connection and will support resolutions of 480i, 480P, 720i, 720 P, 1080i and in the future,1080P.


HDTV technology is changing rapidly. HD connections such as HDMI will become the de facto standard in HDTV connections. We have outlined the important features of HDMI, so the consumer is well informed and ready to make intelligent purchasing decisions.

Jeff Su is product development manager at Jeff is a graduate of the Georgia Institute of Technology (BSEE, MSEE) and has over 10 years of experience in CATV systems, RF, and microwave designs. He may be reached at

Choosing A Digital Camera Printer

There are so many types of digital camera printer on offer that finding the right one for your personal and business needs can be a very daunting task. However, there are a few main points to consider when choosing a digital camera printer that will help make the process a little easier.

It isn’t necessary to have a high-resolution digital camera printer to make great pictures. The higher the printer resolution you use, the more pixels you'll need in your original image file to produce a decent size print with your digital camera printer. The actual file size (in pixels) of the image from your camera, divided by the printer resolution (in dots per inch), determines the final print size. So, if the image file size is 1,478 x 1,280 pixels, and you print the file at 163 dpi with your digital camera printer, the final print size will be 9 x 7.8 inches.

If your digital camera printer resolution is 300 dpi, then you will have a higher resolution with more dots per inch laid down on the paper but a smaller print size. It is therefore important to ensure that you have the image file size to support the resolution of your digital camera printer.

The price of a digital camera printer is lowering whilst the quality is increasing. If you choose the right digital camera printer you can have your own photo lab, greeting card designing and sign making department with just your digital camera, some software and a printer.

The aim of having a digital camera printer is to produce photographic prints that look as close to real photographic prints as possible. This type of digital camera printer was once very expensive to buy and run, but technological advancements and competitive pricing have made them much more accessible to the average buyer. Ink-jet printers are now available that can produce excellent prints and a near photo-quality printer is much easier to find for people with a small budget. You will probably want to have a digital camera printer with a scanning feature built-in. If you want to produce same-size scans of photos you don’t need scan resolutions higher than 300 samples per inch for the scanner.

Your digital camera printer should also have the same interface that you already have on your computer. So if you have USB, then get a digital camera printer with USB, a Firewire printer if you have Firewire or a SCSI printer if you have SCSI. There should be no need to buy a digital camera printer that requires a different interface to the one you already have on your computer or it will cost you more to upgrade if necessary.

About The Author

Steve Gargin is the administrator of which is a great website dedicated to giving free advice on Digital Cameras.

Features Of Your MP4 Player

When MP3s came into the market, they were a huge hit. They were small and portable, and owners could listen to all their favorite music while on the move. Now you have the MP4 player, such as iPod, with even more advanced, attractive features!

With the MP4 player (iPod), you can not only listen to your favorite songs, you can also watch your favorite movies, music videos, and TV shows, along with all your MP3 songs. It can do other things as well - you can listen to FM radio stations, you can record voice notes, and on some devices, you can even read your favorite ebooks.

Since 1993, when the MP3 technology was first introduced in to the market, it had been the most important music format. The recent introduction of the MP4 with its more compressed audio format has again changed the way digital sound is perceived. Most people might not be aware of how the MP4 differs from the MP3 and think that MP4s are more compressed and hence smaller than the audio files in the MP3 format; others assume that these two represent different technologies.

There are both common features as well as distinctions between MP3 and MP4 players. The most important point that comes to the mind when you compare the two, is that the MP4 format has properties that make up for all the shortfalls of the MP3, and the quality of perception of the files in the MP4 format is much better when compared to the MP3.

Basically, MP4 is a container. So it has the capability to carry video as well as audio files. So the basic difference is that the MP4 contains the audio and video at the same time while the MP3 format can support only the audio files. The MP4 player (iPod) allows you to realize something bigger and better than anything you can imagine. It is a new concept known as Structured Audio, and it is a mode of describing sound in the most ultra-modern way.

The MP4 technology supports a quality of sound that represents the future standard for a variety of multimedia application , including computer music and gaming audio; hence one can think of the MP4 as the next step in the evolution of the file format that started with the MP3.

There are many types of MP4 players in the market. They are very light and have small screens of 1.2 inch, however some of them may have screens of up to 2 inches. The speakers are built inside the players and there are earphone sockets as well. It is not unusual to find OLED display characteristics. OLED produces brighter and sharper images as compared to LCD images.

A great characteristic of MP4 players (iPod) is that there are not innumerable buttons for the various commands. Only a few buttons are sufficient for the purpose. The memory is quite large at 8 GB for flash based and 100 GB in case of micro based hard drive .

The latest MP4 players (iPod) even support third party, flash memory cards, which are external... they even have USB support. Earphones and other accessories are also available with the MP4, but at times the quality may not be up to the mark.

Because of it capability of delivering both video and audio at the same time, MP4 devices (iPod) can offer an even greater range of features such as email, web browsing, instant messaging , music and video download, digital cameraPsychology Articles, bluetooth wireless technology and many more. Multiple language options and gaming capability add to its versatility. Features such as voice recording enable MP4 devices to be used not only for entertainment but also for professional purposes.

This article is under GNU FDL license and can be distributed without any previous authorization from the author. However the author's name and all the URLs (links) mentioned in the article and biography must be kept.

This article can be accessed in portuguese language from the Article section of page ,

Roberto Sedycias works as IT consultant for Polomercantil

Wednesday, November 21, 2007

Your Guide To A Notebook

A notebook or laptop is nothing but a small portable computer that weighs 2.2 to 18 pounds (1 to 8 kg), that depends on its brand, style, size, material it is made of, and many other factors. Notebooks generally operate on a single main battery or through an external adapter that can both charge the battery and also supply power to the notebook.

Notebooks are adept at performing the same jobs like a personal desktop; the only difference is that they are generally less powerful for the same cost. They consist of similar components like desktop computers and execute the same functions, except that they are miniature in size and suitable for transportable use and effective power consumption. Notebooks usually have LCD and different memory modules. They have a built-in keyboard; input is done through a touchpad or a pointing stick, though an external mouse can also be attached.

There are different categories of notebooks. UMPCs are Ultra-Mobile PCs and are very portable. Since they are of a small size they can fit in a small touch screen while some other models have a minute physical keyboard along with a mouse interface. The other type is Ultraportables which are notebooks and have screens less than eleven inches and have less than 3.7 pounds (1.7 kg) of weight. They are generally used by business travelers, as they are small and light though very expensive. They have an extended battery life and integrated graphics. The other type of notebook is the Sony VAIO FJ76, and Dell XPS M1330 and XPS M1210. Then we have the mainstream notebooks that are more of budget desktops. And if you want desktop power, then you can opt for desktop replacement which can accommodate many performance components.

As far as the processors are concerned you should go for the fastest that your budget will allow. You can opt for Intel's Centrino that has great speed and also good battery life. Or else you can also go for the economic AMD's mobile processors whose performance still lags behind Intel. If you intend to watch DVDs on your notebook then go for wide screen ones that offer sharper, larger and great images. The only consideration is that they are not meant for carrying around a lot.

For great system performance it is vital to have enough memory (RAM) that will allow you to run many applications together. Adequate RAM is also essential for image and video editing, graphics work, and 3D gaming. Generally notebooks have a terrible sound quality so it is recommended to use speakers or headphones. These are some of the factors that you need to consider before buying a notebook.

Also keep in mind that like any electronic device, your notebook is vulnerable to accidents as well as system failures. It is recommended to get at least a three year warranty and also some additional insurance.

Health hazards related to using a laptop has been a controversial topic for quite some time. Researches have proved that heat generated from notebooks can raise temperature of scrotum, leading to reduced sperm count. A solution can be using it on a table or keeping it apart from the lap that will enable better cooling of the notebook and also prevent your lap from excessive electromagnetic radiation and heat.

Some of the famous brands that have notebook are Acer that have TravelMate, Ferrari and Aspire models; BenQ; Compaq with its Armada, LTE, EVO and Presario models. Other famous brands are Gateway, HCL, Lenovo, LG, Micro-Star International, Panasonic, Samsung, Toshiba and others.

This article can also be accessed from page Notebook_Guide